Showing posts with label Terminology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Terminology. Show all posts

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Geographical Terms

Geographical Terms

Acid Rain : The name given to rain, snow or sleet contaminated with
acid substances so that its acidity is greater than the limit expected by
normal concentrations of carbondioxide dissolved in the rain to give carbonic
acid. The increased acidity is caused by larger concentrations of a number
of contaminants, particularly the strong acids, nitric and sulphuric which
arise from industrial effluents containing oxides, nitrogen and sulphur.

Alluvium : Sedimentary matter deposited by rivers. It makes the soil fertile.

Antipodes : It is a region or place on the opposite side of the earth.

Aphelion : The position of the earth or of any other planet or comet in
its orbit when it is at its greatest distance from the sun.

Archipelago : A group of islands, such as Malaysian Archipelago.

Asteroid : A limp of rock or metal in orbit around the sun.

Atoll : It is a coral reef of the shape of a horse-shoe or ring with a lagoon in the centre.

Biosphere : The organic life on earth both animate and inanimate including plants, vegetables, animals, birds and men.

Bore : A tidal wave which breaks in the estuaries of some rivers and being impelled by the narrowing channel rises in the form of tide, and courses along with great force and noise.

Chromosphere : A shell of hot gas about 1600-4800 km thick encircling the visible surface of the sun.

Comet : A body of gas and dust traveling in an elongated orbit around the sun.

Cape : The point of termination or a neck of land extending into the sea.

Confluence : Meeting place of two or more rivers as at Allahabad where the Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati meet.

Cosmis Rays  : Atomic particles from spare whim travel close to the speed of light.

Continental Shelf : Apart of land which is submerged under the sea and whose depth is not more than 600 ft.

Contours : Lines connecting parts of the same Altitudes above sea level.                                         

Date line (or International date line) : It is situated 180. meridian from Greenwich, a ship while crossing the line eastwards goes forward a day, while westward it goes back a day.

Delta : An alluvial deposit shaped like the Greek letter formed at the mouth of river. The Nile Delta is well-known.

Earthquake : It is shaking of earth's crust sometimes accompanied by permanent elevations or depression, but often no lasting effect is visible on the surface, except the damage done by shaking.

El Nino  : A phenomenon noticed in the Pacific Ocean near the Chilean Coast. It is now believed that it has a major impact on the onset of monsoon's in India.

Equinox : March 21 and September 23, when days and nights are of equal durations throughout the globe.

Fog : When moist air meets cold surface of earth, some of the water 'ours condense on the particles of dust in air. This cloud of condensed vapour is called fog.

Glacier : A vast accumulation of ice and snow, which moves slowly, till it melts and forms a river is caned glacier.

Geyser : It is a fountain of hot water issuing from a hole which extends deep into earth's crust. The chief geysers of the world are found in Iceland, New Zealand and Yellow Stone National Park (USA).

Gulf Stream : It is a warm ocean current, which flows along the eastern coast of North America and drifts towards the western coast of Europe.

Iceberg : A large mass of ice, detached from a glacier and floating in the sea, is called an iceberg.

Igloo : It is the dome-shaped hut of snow in which Eskimos live,

Lagoon : A shallow lake formed at the  :mouth of a river or near the sea but separated from it by a sand mound.

Meteor : A particle from space which burns up by friction in the Earth's atmosphere.

Midnight Sun : In the Arctic region, the sun is visible even at midnight in summer. Norway is called the land of midnight sun.

Milky way : A band of stars, gas and dust across the night sky.

Ocean Currents : These are great circulatory movements of ocean either warm or cold and are caused by (i) permanent winds, i.e., trade and westernly winds; and (ii) by difference in density of sea water.

Oceans : 71% of the total area of the earth is covered by water. In the ancient times, these oceans were regarded as great hindrance in the development of relations between different countries. But now these have become great highways for transportation.

Orbit : The path of the earth or any other planet round the sun is called its orbit.

Photosphere : The bright surface layer of gases on the sun.

Pampas : Dreary expanse of treeless grassy plains between the Andes and the Atlantic ocean.

Prairies : Extensive treeless tracts, covered with tall coarse grass, situated ill Central and North America.

Rainbow : It is an arch in the sky, caused by the reflection and refraction of breaking up of the rays of the sun by tiny droplets of rain suspended in air.

Satellite : Natural satellites also called  :moons are small planets which revolve round the larger ones.

Savannas : Land covered with natural grass in the tropical region from 5° N and 5°C of equator to 23° N and 30° S.

Selvas : The plains covered with thick forests near the river Amazon (Brazil) in South America.

Tides : Tides are the alternate rise and fall of the sea water. The tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and to a lesser degree of the sun.

Volcano : It is large conical hillock having a funnel-shaped opening from which lava comes out. Cotapaxi is a lofty active volcano in South America.

Medical Terms

Medical Terms

AIDS : Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. A disease which results in the total breakdown of the body's immune system, it is caused by acts of homosexuality and heterosexuality. It is likely to emerge as the largest killer by the end of this century. No effective treatment has so been found except ATZ, which is quite expensive and still unreliable.

Allergy : A condition in which a person is sensitive or susceptible to the effects of any drug or an article. Hay fever, asthma, eczema : are allergic diseases.

Anaemia : Bloodlessness due to lack of red blood corpuscles or of hemoglobin, a condition in which person becomes pale in colour and weak in health.

Anaesthetic : A kind of drug which produces temporary insensibility to touch and pain, with or without the loss of consciousness. The best known anaesthetic is chloroform.

Analgesic : A drug which relieves pain, e.g. aspirin.

Antacid : A drug which counteracts acidity in the stomach.

Antibiotics : This is a name given to a series of drugs like penicillin and streptomycin; these are preparations from moulds or mould-like organisms which destroy bacteria and prevent their growth. Their use has revolutionised medicinal effect.

Antibody : Specific substances produced in the blood, as a reaction to antigen.

Antidote : A remedy for counteracting poison.

Antiseptic : A drug which destroys germs, e.g., dettol, carbolic acid.

Anti-toxin : A substance produced by the blood to counteract the effect of a poison or infection.

Appendicitis : This disease is caused by the inflammation of the appendix which results in general feeling of uneasiness and pain in the upper part of abdomen.

Aspirin : To relieve pain; it is safe and widely used for the relief of headache, rheumatic aches and pains.

Asthma : A disease marked by the difficulty in breathing due to spasm of the bronchial muscles.

Astigmatism : A defect in the eyesight, when one cannot distinguish between vertical and horizontal lines; it can be rectified by cylindrical lenses.

Autopsy : A post-mortem examination of a body.

Bacillus : A rod-shaped micro-organism. For example, tubercle bacillus causes tuberculosis.

Bacteria : Germs not visible to naked eye causing several types of diseases.

Beri-Beri : A vitamin B deficiency disease marked by muscular atrophy. It causes numbness of arms and legs and swelling of the feet and arms. Eating of polished rice can cause it.

Bladder : A membranous body situated in the front part of pelvis cavity, which acts as a reservoir of urine.

Blood Bank : The store house of blood to be administered in cases of emergency.

Blood Groups : Human blood has been classified into four groups A, B, AB, and O. In administering blood from one person to another, one has to be careful to administer blood of the same group, otherwise it would prove fatal. Group 0 is universal donor and it can be given to anybody. Similarly Group AB is universal receiver.

Blood Pressure : It is the pressure exerted by blood against the blood vessels; chronic anxiety, perpetual worry and kidney troubles cause high blood pressure. Low blood pressure results in fainting attacks.

Blood Transfusion : Transferring the blood from one person to another in case of loss of blood due to accident or at child-birth, and also in case of anaemic children.

Cardiograph : An instrument for recording the movements of heart.

Cataract : Clouding of the lens of the eye, which prevents clear vision, mostly cured with an operation.

Chicken-pox : A very infectious disease. It is caused by a virus occurring commonly in children. One attack usually gives life-long immunity.

Chromosomes : The bodies contained within the nucleus of every animal or plant cell each containing several hundreds of the hereditary factors called genes. When the cell splits each chromosome splits up Into an identical complement of genes.

Cholera : An acute bacterial infection characterised by severe vomiting and .passing of loose motions frequently, drying of the tissues and painful cramps. It spreads by infected food and water.

Chronic : A chronic disease is one which is prolonged and relatively mild as opposed to an acute one, which is short and severe.

Cinchona : The tree, native to South America, from whose bark quinine is derived.

Colds : This is a highly infectious disease and is caused by a virus. It results in bad throat, headache and watery nose.

Colic : Severe pain in the abdomen, caused by spasm of the internal organs, usually the intestines.

Colour Blindness : Sometimes the vision is quite normal but the patient is not able to distinguish between colours; the most common being the lack of distinction between red and green.

Coma : Complete loss of consciousness.

Deficiency Disease : A disease which is caused by the lack of a certain ingredient in the diet, usually applied to lack of vitamins or fat in foodstuffs such as beri-beri, rickets and scurvy.

Diabetes : It is caused by the inability of the body to make use of sugar in the food, consequently this sugar accumulates in the blood, and is finally passed out in the urine.

Diarrhoea : Loose stools due to many causes.

Diphtheria : An acute infectious disease caused by the growth of a membrane in the throat. It may result in death, since breathing is stopped.

Dysentery : Passing of stools with blood and mucus.

Eczema : A disease due to the inflammation of the skin. It is of two types, dry or wet. In the second type, water oozes out of the skin.

E.E.G. : Electroencephalogram (Electrical writings of the brain). It helps in the diagnosis of major upsets of brain functions. It also helps to locate tumours of the brain.

Endemic : A disease which prevails in a particular area on account of the surrounding conditions, such as Malaria and Leprosy.

Enteric : Typhoid fever.                                                                                                                                  

Enzymes : Organic catalysts which accelerate chemical processes occurring in living organisms. For example, fermentation of sugars into alcohol requires the presence of enzymes. Ptyalin in saliva is another example.

Epidemic : A disease which often attacks the people of a locality, and spreads quickly to other parts also.

Epilepsy : A disease in which the patient falls down unconscious with spasm and froth in the mouth.

Filaric : A disease transmitted by a male mosquito (culex); it is accompanied by high fever, it occurs particularly in Assam and West Bengal.

Flu (Influenza) : A highly contagious disease which is preceded by headache, body pain, throat, cough, and a general feeling of fatigue; it results in watery nose, bad throat and hoarse voice. One should avoid crowds. It is a disease caused by viruses, and a remedy for it ,has not been developed so far.

Genes : The ultimate biological units of, heredity, the part of or place (locus) on the chromosome that datelines physical inheritance and constitution.

Gonorrhea : A venereal. disease.

Gout : A metabolic disease marked by painful inflammation of the joints, deposits of urate of sodium in and around the joints, and an excess of uric acid in the blood.

Gynaecology : The study of the diseases of women.

Haemorrhage : Bleeding due to injury. But it may be due to an internal ulcer or by bursting of any vein due to high blood pressure.

Hay Fever : It is one of the allergic diseases and is caused by abnormal sensitivity to certain grass pollens found in early summer.

Heliotherapy : The treatment of disease by the sun's rays.

Hemiplegia : Paralysis of one side of the body.

Homeopathy : A system of medicine discovered by Hahnemann, a German physician.

Hormone : This is a chemical substance produced by an endocrine or ductless gland. The substance causes a physical reaction in another organ to which it is carried by the bloodstream. Insulin secreted by the pancreas is a good example. Other examples are thyroxin, adrenaline (adrenal glands) and pituitary secretions.

Hydrophobia : A disease caused by the bite of a mad dog or mad jackal. The symptoms sometimes do not appear for six months after the bite; but generally the incubation period is 20-60 days. It is normally fatal once the symptoms appear unless a course  of treatment discovered by Pasteur has been administered.

Hypermetropia : (Long sightedness). One can seethe object at greater distances but not nearer ones; it can be remedied by convex lenses.

Immunity : Power of the living organism to resist and overcome diseases.

Insomnia : A disease of sleeplessness, due to (i) physical, or (ii) mental exertion.

Insulin : The internal secretion of the pancreas which converts blood into energy. Lack of it causes diabetes.

Jaundice : Yellow coloration of the skin and other tissues of, the body by excess of the bile pigment present in the blood and the lymph.

Kala-azar  : Also known as Mediterranean fever. It mostly occurs in tropical countries and its symptoms are the growth and swelling of spleen and liver, etc. Its cure was found by U.N. Brahmachari.

Leprosy : Endemic disease caused by germ similar to that of tuberculosis; it affects the skin and the nerves; deformities arise in the body.

Leukaemia : There is a great increase in the number of white cells in the system, red blood corpuscles break down causing anaemia, there is swelling of the spleen also. Death occurs within a few days.

L.S.D.  : Lysergic acid diethylamide; a drug which produces many symptoms of  schizophrenia; it causes strange sensation : first discovered accidentally by Albert Hoffman, a Swiss chemist. The Hippies are addicted to the drug.

Malaria : It is caused by the bite of a female mosquito, i.e., Anopheles. Use Quinine, Paludrine or Ate brine frequently during the season is advised.

Measles : An acute infectious human disease with red rash.

Meningitis : An infection of the membranes of the brain.

Metabolism : This is a term applied to the breaking up and building of the cells in the human body. The former is called catabolism and the latter anabolism. Its rate depends upon the activity of thyroid gland.

Migraine : An allergic disease, which is accompanied by periodic attacks of headache, etc. It is an incurable disease.

Parasite : Animal or plant living in or on another.

Pathology  : The study of diseases for their own sake, rather than from any intention of curing it.

Penicillin : A new antibiotic drug obtained from moulds which has revolutionised the whole medical treatment. It kills pus germs, and is a specific cure for pneumonia and venereal diseases.

Photosynthesis : The phenomenon by which the plants assimilate their food from the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight. It is also called carbon assimilation.

Piles : There are various veins in the rectum or around the anus. The immediate cause of the disease is pressure on the veins, which prevents the free flow of blood. It is mainly due to constipation and pregnancy. if it grows patient suffers from pain after the bowels have been emptied.

Plasma : The colourless fluid part of blood; it has now become possible to store it, to be used in cases of emergency.

Plastic Surgery : Science of restoring or altering tissues by grafting.

Pneumonia : An inflammatory condition of the lung tissue accompanied by pain in the chest.

Rickets : A disease caused due to the deficiency of vitamin D, common in children. The bones get softened, bent and become deformed.

Ringworm : It is an infectious disease and is caused by a fungus. Hair whiter and bluish patches are formed and it is accompanied by severe itching.

Serum : It is a fluid, which is separated when blood clots.

Scurvy : A bleeding disorder caused by the lack of vitamin C and can be best cured by lime juice which is rich in vitamin C.

Smallpox : An acute infectious disease characterised by fever, severe headache, pain in the joints and rash. Best safeguard is vaccination invented by Edward Jenner. The disease has been completely eliminated.

Tetanus : It is a disease caused by Tetanus bacillus found in rich soil or the dung of a horse. The disease affects the nervous system and it can prove fatal. However, now it is possible to get immunity by anti-tetanus injection.

Historical, Political, Constitutional and Diplomatic Terms

Historical, Political, Constitutional and Diplomatic Terms

Adjournment Motion : A motion moved by a member in a legislature, when it is desired to draw the attention of the executive to a matter of urgent public importance or interest.

Amendment : An alteration made in a law or constitution.

By-election : It is an election to a seat in a local body or a legislature, rendered vacant during the normal life of an elected body.

Bandh : A device resorted to by political parties and trade unions, and effort is made to focus attention on some local issues by bringing the entire normal life to a standstill.

Balance of Power : To preserve equality of strength between countries so that no single country becomes powerful. enough to be a source of danger to others.

Brain Drain : It is a term applied to the exodus of technicians and scientists to other countries where they get more and better opportunities.

Bicameral System : The form of legislature which has two Chambers or Houses as opposed to unicameral system having only one House of Legislature.

Bureaucracy : The form of government which is conducted by officials, who are specially trained for the services. These officers control the policy of the government; they are responsible only to their chiefs and not to the public.

Buffer State : A smaller state lying between potentially hostile larger states, lessening the risk of direct war between them. Poland was a buffer State between Germany and Russia; Belgium is a buffer State between France and Germany.

Civil Disobedience : Non-cooperation with government, without resorting to violence. This form of agitation was adopted by the Indian National Congress to secure independence.

Collective Security : The principle, formerly laid down in the League of Nations, that all nations should collectively guarantee the security of each individual nation. NATO and the Warsaw Pact are examples of collective security organisations. The Warsaw Pact was dissolved on March 31, 1991.

Communalism : The political theory or trend of thought which insists too much upon the rights and interests of a particular religion, as distinguished from those of the nation at large. The 1991 elections were marked by appeal to communal sentiments.

Communism : It may mean either the type of society in which right to property is vested in the community, every individual receiving what he needs and working according to his capacity, or it may mean the revolutionary movement which seeks to achieve that type of society by overthrowing the capitalist system and establishing a dictatorship of the  proletariat. Modern communism has its basis in Marxism, as developed by the Russian
revolutionary leader, Lenin(1870-1924). Communism now survives only in China, Vietnam, North Korea and Cuba. However, in India the communists still enjoy a clout.

Carte Blanche : Blank cheque, i.e., to give full powers.

Casting Vote : It is the deciding vote of the Chairman, when there is a tie, i.e., equality of votes.

Constituent Assembly : An assembly of elected representatives convened for the purpose of framing a constitution of the country.

Coup d'etat : A political strategy or action resulting in the change of government, generally initiated by military personnel. A sudden change of government brought about by force. It is different from a revolution which involves the participation of the masses.

Curfew : An order under which people have to be indoors within certain hours. Such restrictive orders are imposed when there is apprehension of breach of peace.

Cabinet Government : The form of government in which the Executive, a Council of Ministers, is responsible to the legislature. It is also called parliamentary system.

Conscription : Compulsory enlistment for the defence services; there can be conscription of labour as well.

Coalition : An alliance of political parties for a special purpose. A coalition or coalition government is formed either to deal with a national crisis or when no party is able to secure an absolute majority in the legislature.

Cold War : A state of apparent peace between two powerful countries or blocs, but they show malice against each other through press, radio, etc. The term was first used by Bernard M. Maruch while addressing the South Carolina Legislative Body, on April 16, 1947. It is often used to describe the relationship that had existed between the Soviet Union and the Western Powers since 1947. The break up and weakening of USSR resulted in virtual end of Cold War and has resulted in a unipolar world dominated by the United States of America. Its writ runs ,large allover the world, in early 1998 Iraq was almost invaded by an American led rag tag alliance.

Democracy : The form of government run by the people or their elected representatives. Abraham Lincoln defined it as "government of the people, by the people, for the people."

Deadlock : A situation in which further negotiations are impossible.

Dictatorship : A form of government in which all power rests in a single individual or the system of one-man rule, as the rule of Hitler in pre-war Germany, and that of Mussolini in pre-war Italy.

Doctrine of Lapse : The East India Company laid down a principle that on the death of an Indian ruling prince without a direct descendant, the British Government could refuse to sanction the adoption of an heir and declare the dominions of the deceased as lapsed to the sovereign power. It was initiated and acted upon by Lord Dalhousie. It was one of the causes of the national rising of 1857.

Fourth Estate : It applies to the press, first used by Edmund Burke.

Franchise : The right to vote. It is also called suffrage.

Fascism : A nationalist, anti-communist and authoritarian political system evolved by Mussolini and his followers in Italy after 1922. Italian fascism served as a model to similar movements in other countries including Germany where it assumed the form of Nazism.

Feudalism : Asocial and political system existing in Europe during the Middle Ages, based on the relationship between lord and vassal.

Fifth Column : It applies to those people who work secretly against the interests of their own country by carrying on. false propaganda or by other means; they are sympathisers of the enemy.

Fundamental Rights : The basic rights of the citizen of a state generally embodied in modern constitutions, such as the right to property, the right to freedom of speech, the right to freedom of movement, the right to freedom of religion. etc.

Federal Government : It s a form of government in which regions {called provinces, states, etc.) enjoy autonomy in certain spheres. The regions are not at the mercy of the Centre, as is the case in a unitary government.

Glasnost : A term coined by Mr. Gorbacliev. It implied more openness of the society and freeing the Media from the overwhelming control of the state.

Guillotine : A method adopted in a legislature to cut short discussion on a bill by fixing time for taking votes.

Habeas Corpus : A writ requiring the authorities to produce a person/prisoner before a judge or court in person and state the reasons for his being in prison.

Hegemony : Dominant influence, especially of one State over others.

Hot Line : The direct telephone and teleprinter link set up in August, 1963 between Kremlin (U.S.S.R.) and the Pentagon (Washington) to avoid accidental war. Now, any line of speedy communication ready for an emergencys called as hot line.

Iron Curtain : A term coined by Sir Winston Churchill, applied to such countries as did not give other countries any information concerning their internal affairs. The term was applied to Soviet Russia and her satellites. Similar action by china was termed as "Bamboo Curtain."

Mandate : A system of coronial administration adopted after World War I by the League of Nations. The mandated territories were the areas taken away from Germany and Turkey after World War I and handed over to the victorious powers for purposes of administration.

Marxism : The system of thought developed by Karl Marx, (1818-83), a German Jew, along with Engels. According to him, the State, throughout history has been advice for the exploitation of the masses by a dominant class; class-struggls has been the main agency of historical change; the capitalist State contains the germs of its own destruction; a revolution is inevitable; and after a transitional. period, known as the dictatorship of the proletariat, a stateless and classless society will come into being.

Manifesto: Declaration of future programme and policy by a political party on the eve of a general election.
Mid-Term Election : An election held in between the period of general election, when the legislature is dissolved on account of the failure of the constitutional machinery or otherwise the government wants to seek a fresh vote of confidence on its policies. Mid-term elections have now become regular features on account of political instability. Mid-term elections to the Lok Sabha were held in 1970, 1977, 1979,1991, 1997, 1999 and Feb. 2004.

Nationalisation: To convert (land, railways, industries, etc.) into national property or undertakings by the state. All socialist States have resorted to nationalisation to give workers better wages, and to get more revenues for the State. Life lnsurance Companies in India were nationalised in 1955. Major banks were nationalised on July 19, 1969. In 1971, General lnsurance was also nationalised. Coal mines were nationalised in 1973.

Nazism : The doctrine propounded by Hitler in his book Mein Kampf which aimed at aggressive nationalism; it glorified the German race and preached its superiority believed in anti-semetism. It culminated in World War ll.

Non-Aggression Pact : A pact signed between two or more countries to resolve all their disputes amicably without going to war. A non-aggression pact signed between Russia and Germany in 1939 was1aterviolated in 1942, when Hitler attacked Russia.

Ordinance : An act promulgated by the Head of a State in case of emergency without undergoing the formalities of the regular procedure of the legislature of the country. It cannot remain in force beyond a specified period.

Panch Sheel : Five principles enunciated by the Prime Ministers of India and of People's Republic of China in 1954 as the basis for international cooperation. They are :
(1) Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty;
(2) non-aggression;
(3) non-interference in each other's internal affairs;
(4) equality and mutual benefits;
(5) peaceful co-existence.

These principles were accepted more or less by all the Afro-Asian countries, besides the U.S.S.R., Serbia & Montenegro, Poland, and others. China violated the Panch Sheel by making inroads into the Indian territory, and by attacking India in 1962.

Parliamentary Government : In contrast to the presidential system, parliamentary government. is one in which the real executive (a cabinet headed by the Prime Minister) is responsible to the legislature. It is also called a cabinet form of government.

Paramountcy : The undisputed authority of one big power over a smaller State. Before 1947, paramountcy over the princely states in India vested with the British Crown.

Perestroika : Another term coined by the Soviet leader Mr. Gorbachev. It implies  restructuring of the economic system in order to increase production and make available more consumer products to the people.

Presidential Government : A form of government in which the President, who is the real executive head, is independent of the control of the legislature, as in the U.S.A., the President is the Head of State as well as of the Government.

Quorum : The minimum number of officers or members of a society or legislature that must be present to make the proceedings valid.

Red Guards : The Armed Revolutionary Youth Organisation in China; it was organised in 1966 to spread the teachings of Mao Tse-Tung and idolize him; it let loose a reign of terror against the revisionists, capitalists and anti-Maoists.

Republic : A State, especially a democratic State, which has a non-hereditary head (the President) as distinguished from a State like Britain which has a hereditary head (King or Queen) with limited powers, of course.

Secularism : The policy of showing equal respect to all religions; there is no discrimination on the basis of religion.

Socialism : A political and economic system according to which land, transport, main industries, natural resources (e.g. coal, water-power), etc. should be owned and managed by the State, or by public bodies in the interests of the community as a whole.

Sphere of Influence : Territory on which an outside power exercised indirect control,  though it has not actually annexed it. The East European countries were under the 'sphere of influence' of Russia.

Totalitarianism : A form of rule in which the State (or those who are in power) dominates every sphere of the individual's life.

Theocracy : A religious state as opposed to a secular state. Saudi Arabia is a theocratic state. Iran has become another theocratic State. The Shariat laws have been introduced in Pakistan.

Veto : Constitutional right of a person (e.g. President or King) or a legislative body or other body, or a member of the United Nations Security Council, to reject or prohibit something.

Vote of Censure : A direct way of expressing disapproval and condemnation of the actions of ministers. It is a good way of exercising control over the administration.

Whip : Organising secretary of a parliamentary party, with authority over its members to maintain discipline and secure attendance at parliamentary debates and voting. Whip also means an order given by such a secretary to members of the party to attend and vote.

Young Turks : The term applied to the radical element in a particular party who demand sweeping reforms bring about faster development. The term was first used for the group led by Kemal Ataturk of the group wanted radical religious and economic reforms.

Literacy, Artistic and Journalistic Terms

Literacy, Artistic and Journalistic Terms

Agnosticism : The theory that nothing is known of the existence of God or anything beyond material phenomenon.

Alma mater : Gracious mother, a term used by old students for the university or institution where they have received education.

Alliteration : 
The repetition of the same initial letter in every succeeding word, as "apt alliteration's artful aid."

Anagram : Forming anew word, phrase or sentence by changing the order of letters.

Anticlimax : A sudden descent in thought and expression.

Anthem :
 A national song.

Biography: The history or the life of a particular person.

Bibliography : The science of description of books, a list of authorities on any subject.

Blue books: British Parliamentary Reports so named on account of blue covers.

Blank Verse : Poetry without rhyme.

Burlesque : A literary or dramatic work intended to excite laughter by extravagant contrast or caricature.

Calligraphy : Beautiful penmanship or art of writing.

Cartoon : A pictorial sketch dealing with a political or a current topic; it generally excites laughter.

Catechism : Religious instruction in the form of questions and answers.

Canto: A part of a poem of considerable length.

Dirge : A funeral hymn; a song expressive of grief.

Embossing : Art of producing raised figures or designs in relief on surface.

Epic : A narrative poem of some heroic deed or event.

Epigram : A short saying full of wit. "In the midst of life we arc in death."

Epilogue : A poem or speech at the end of a play.

Humanism: A system of thinking in which man, his interests and progress are made central and dominant.

Hymn: Song in praise of God.

Hieroglyphics: These are the earliest pictures of symbolic expressions, and are supposed to have been introduced by the ancient Egyptians.

Idyl : A short poem describing simple, rural, pastoral scenes.

Interlude : A short musical entertainment given between acts of a play, etc.

Invective : Use of violent and abusive words against an individual or society.

Jargon: 1. A mixture of two or more languages. 2. The technical or specialised language characteristic of a particular profession or group.

Lampoon: A piece of satire against a person.

Lay : A short lyric or narrative poem meant to be sung.                                            

Lithography : Drawing or writing on limestone (lithographic stone) so that impression in ink can be taken on a paper.

Linotype : Machine for producing stereotyped lines or words as substitute for type-setting, now much used in printing newspapers.

Lyric: Originally it meant a poem that could be sung, but now it is used in a general sense.

Maiden Speech : First speech made by a person in an assembly.

Melody: Musical arrangement of words.

Melodrama : Sensational dramatic piece with violent appeals to emotion.

Neology : Bringing into use of new words into a language.

Nom de plume (pen name) : An assumed name under which a person writes to hide his identity.

Obituary : Notification of death especially in a newspaper, a brief biography of a deceased person.

Ode : In modern usage, a lyric poem, often in the form of an address.

Opera : A musical drama. Opera is sung whereas in a ballet there is no singing.

Orthoepy : The part of grammar dealing with correct pronunciation.

Orthography : Art of correct spelling.

Panegyric : Something written or spoken in praise of a distinguished person or event.

Parody : Imitation of a poem or a writing.

Philology : Science of languages.

Plagiarist : One who steals from the writings of others and claims it as his own.

Plagiarist : Act of stealing from the writings of others.

Pornography : Treatment of obscene subject in literature. Lolita by Nobokov and Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence are examples of pornographic literature in earlier time but now a lot is being accepted.

Prosody : Science of versification.

Poet Laureate : Poet of the Royal household, one who writes poetry on state occasions.

Rhetoric : 
The art of persuasive impressive speaking or writing.

Romance :
 A branch of literature in which element of wonder or imagination predominates.

Realism : A term used with reference to a form of literature which represents actual life.

Rhapsody : Wild composition, conceived in a confused and excited state of mind.

Rotary : A high speed printing machine. Also a world-wide society for International service to humanity.

Royalty : The percentage to which a writer, painter or musician is entitled on the sale of a book, painting or a musical composition.

Sculpture: Art of forming representation of objects by cutting stone, carving wood, casting metals or similar processes.

Legal Terms

Legal Terms

Affidavit : A statement on oath for use as evidenee in judicial proceedings.

Attorney, Power of : A document under seal authorising the person to whom it is given to act in all respects as the agent of the granter of the power in relation to matter specified in the documents.

Bail : The security given to effect the release of an arrested or imprisoned, on the understanding that he shall appear for trial at a fixed time and place.

Bailable Offence : Offence that admits of bail, i.e., release on security, pending trial.

Bye-Laws : Special rules and regulations made by any company or corporation for carrying on its affairs, but they must neither contravene the powers conferred by parliament nor the laws of the land.

Code : A body of classified laws or regulations.

Court Martial : A military court to try persons under military law.

Copyright : The exclusive right of an author in his literary or artistic work. It is vested in the author for a period of fifty years.

Contempt of Court : Disobedience or disregard of the judgment or orders of the Court.

Covenant : In law, means a promise made under seal.

Decree : The award or decision of a court or arbitrator.

Exhibit : A legal document presented as a proof of the facts.

Extra-territorial Rights : These are enjoyed by diplomats, traders or others who, though residing in a country, are not subjected to its laws.

Forgery : The act of falsely making or materially altering any writing with the intention to defraud. Also, the act of counterfeiting coins or currency.

Indemnity : Security against damage or loss.

Injunction : A judicial order requiring the party enjoined to take or refrain from some specified action.

Jury : A body of persons chosen and sworn in to hear and pass verdict upon evidence brought forward at a trial, inquest or inquiry.

Lease : Contract by which a lessor, usually in consideration of rent, conveys land or tenement to a lessee for a specified time.

Legacy : A gift by will or personal property.

Libel : Any publication or statement calculated to injure one's reputation or character.

Licence : It is an authority or liberty given to do some act which, without such permission, would be unlawful.

Mortgage : A deed transferring property to creditor as security for the payment of a debt.

Notary Public : An officer publicly authorised to certify deeds and other documents.

Official Receiver : A person properly authorised to carry out duties connection with the winding up of an insolvent's estate.

Proxy : One who acts for another, or the written authorisation for such action.

Summons : A writ of court commanding the attendance of a witness at a specified time and place.
Warrant :  1. A magistrate's order for the arrest of a person or seizure of goods;
2. a receipt for goods deposited in a warehouse, and negotiable document;
3. a document entitling the holder to certain money or property.

Writ : An order issued by a court commanding a person to whom it is addressed to act or abstain from acting in some way.

Will : Legal disposal of property on one's death according to the written instructions of the deceased.

Economics, Commercial and Trade Terms

Economics, Commercial and Trade Terms

Ante date : To give a date prior to that on which it is written, to any cheque, bill or any other document.

Appreciation of Money : It is a rise in the value of money caused by a fall in the general price level.
Assets : Property of any kind available towards the discharge of the liabilities of a testator, intestate debtor or company.

At Sight : A form of notification written on bills or notes denoting that they are not payable on demand but after expiry of a specified period and allowing three days of grace there after.

Arbitration : A method for compounding dispute, generally of an industrial nature, between the employer and his employees by reference to disinterested parties-called arbitrators.

Advice : Any notification of a business transaction, apprising an agent, correspondent, or customer that a certain thing has been done.

Bear : A speculator in the market who believes that price will go down.

Bill of Credit : A letter authorising the advance of money to a specified person, implying thereby the obligation on the part of the writer to repay that amount.

Black Money : Unaccounted money on which no Income-tax has been paid. The main reason for accumulation of black money has been the steep rise in rate of taxation : tax evasion becomes attractive and profitable. The business community, politicians and bureaucrats all have accumulated black money during the last few years. The Government of India demonetised high denomination notes in Jan. 1978 in order to reduce the evil or black money. Voluntary Disclosure Income Scheme was introduced in 1977 by the Govt. Over Rs. 10,000 crores were netted by the Govt. by Feb 28, 1998.

Bond : A written monetary agreement between two persons, or between two governments or between a person and a government or corporation, or between a corporation and a government.

Bull : A speculator in the stock market who buys goods, in some cases without money to pay with, anticipating that prices will go up.

Balance of Trade : The difference between the imports and exports of a country. It is favourable when the value of exported goods exceeds the value of imported goods. And it is unfavourable if the imports exceed exports.

Bankers' Cheque : A cheque drawn by one bank on its own branch.

Bank Rate : The rate at which the Central Bank (Reserve Bank of India) will discount first class bills of exchange.

Basket Currencies : 14 currencies whose average value has been taken to calculate the value of S.D.R. Similarly, the rupee exchange rate is announced on the basis of average value of half a dozen basket currencies.

Buyers' Market : An area in which the supply of certain goods exceeds the demands, so that purchasers can drive hard bargains.

Carat : Measure or weight for precious stones, about 4 grains; 24 carat gold is the purest gold, thus 22 carat gold means a piece of gold in which 22 .parts are pure gold and 2 parts of an alloy, usually copper.

Caution Money : It is money deposited as security for the fulfilment of a contract of obligation.      

Central Bank : A bank which is (a) banker to the Government, (b) banker to the commercial banks, and (c) manages the currency and credit policy of that country. The Reserve Bank of India is the Central Bank.

Clearing House : The place where clerks from the different banks meet daily, bringing with them all bills cheques drawn on each other bank on that day. The bills/cheques are then exchanged and outstanding differences settled.

Letter of Credit : A letter from a bank, firm or one person to another authorising payment to a third person of a specific sum, for which the sender assumes full responsibility.

Crossed Cheque : A cheque is crossed for protection. In a crossed cheque two parallel lines are drawn across its face and the words 'and Co'. are written between the lines. Such a cheque must be paid into one's own account in the ban} and then realised.

Debentures : A debenture is a certificate issued by a company to its creditors promising the payment of a stated sum at fixed rate of interest, after a specified period of time. A debenture is the first charge on the assets of the company.

Deflation : A state in monetary market when money in circulation has decreased and is characterised by low prices, unemployment, etc.

Demand Draft : An instrument drawn by one bank on any of its own branches or on another bank under agency arrangement is payble on demand.

Devaluation : A deliberate reduction in the value of the home currency to foreign currency. It is done always by a governmental action, and is resorted to in order to reduce imports and increase exports. India devalued her currency by 37 per cent on 6th June, 1966. Of late so many countries, viz., U.K., U.S.A., and France have resorted to this expedient to balance their payment positions.

Draft : A cheque drawn by one bank on another.

Estate Duty : A form of death duty and a method of direct taxation, imposed when the property is transferred on the death of its owner. It has been abolished in India but was reintroduced in a limited way in 1988.

EURO : The European Union declared to introduce a common currency for its member countries, called EURO. Eleven of the fifteen countries agreed to become members of the common currency introduced on Jan. 1, 1999. Four countries are likely to become members later. By 2002, it is hoped that the local currencies will disappear and replaced by EURO.

Excise Duty : It is the duty charged on goods manufactured within the country; excise duties on alcohol, tobacco, sugar, match-box, cIoth, etc., have been levied by the Government of India.

Floating Currency : On account of too wide a fluctuation between the official and unofficial rates for various currencies of the world, some of the countries decided not to fix any particular rate of the currency vis-a-vis others and let the value be determined on a daily basis.

Foreign Exchange : The method by which transactions in international trade are financed.

Fixed Exchange Rate : When the exchange rate of the currency is fixed by the concerned government and it can only be changed either by devaluation or revaluation.

Floating Exchange Rate : A situation in which the exchange rate of any currency is determined by the forces of demand and supply for this currency. Today rupee is also floating and its exchange rate with other currencies is determined by the demand and supply. Periodically the Reserve Bank of India announces the exchange rates of rupee with other currencies. The exchange rate is calculated by taking average value of basket currencies.

Free Trade : A tariff system which treats foreign imports and home produced articles on the same basis, either taxing both equally or exempting both.

Gold Standard : It is a system of currency based on the free coinage of gold. It presupposes that the state will sell and buy gold at fixed price in terms of the local currency; For all practical purposes, the system is dead now.

Green Revolution : The term applied for the steep rise in the production of agricultural products, during the past few years. The Green Revolution was made possible by : (i) better use of fertilizers {ii) intensive cultivation, (iii) latest varieties of seeds and especially the hybrid varieties (iv) pesticides and insecticides and (v) availability of assured means of irrigation green revolution turned gray in 1973-74 when food production was considerably lower. The main reason, according to a few, is not the non-availability of
food articles, but faulty distribution. There were food grain shortages in 1980 on account of severe drought in 1979. In 1998, the country reaped a large harvest of over 194 million tones and over 200 million tones in 1999.

Hard Currency : The currency of a country in relation to which we have an adverse balance of payment, i.e.,which is hard to be obtained.

Hot Money : Money which moves from one place to another to seek profit or higher rate of interest is called hot money.

Index Number : A statistical method of indicating approximately the variations in the prices of essential commodities over certain periods of time.

Inflation : It is an increase in the quantity of money in circulation without any corresponding increase in goods, and, therefore, it leads to an abnormal rise in the price level.

Key Currency : A currency which is internally acceptable and is used in international payments. 

Laissez-faire : It is the other name of individualistic theory which advocates private initiative in trade and non-intervention by state in commercial or business enterprises.

Lead Bank : The Banking Commission has recommended that the nationalised banks should be asked to take over the complete development activity of backward areas. Each bank was to be attached with a certain backward region of a district. It was to be the responsibility of the bank to look after the development of the backward region. The bank was to undertake more or less a techno-economic survey in order to take overall the financial and developmental needs.

Legal Tender : Any form of money which is legal quittance of a debt, and which cannot be refused by the creditors.

Limited Company : A company in which the shareholder's responsibility is limited to the extent of the value of the shares in it.

Lock-out : The factory is closed by employers to force the employers to accept the imposed terms.

Mixed economy : A mixed economy is one in which both public and private sectors have an important role to play, India has opted for a mixed economy with a provision that a few industrial fields of vital national
importance have been reserved for the public sector.

Mutual Funds : There have been times when to purchase the minimum sized trading lot a good growth shares, one has to invest more than Rs. 25,000. For a small saver, the only way to take advantages of the prosperity of such companies is by subscribing to a mutual fund. This enables him to subscribe to a diversified portfolio, not only offering him the advantages of growth in scripts that he would otherwise not have been able to invest in but also helping him to get a balanced portfolio which would reduce his
exposure to risk. Despite floating of a large number of Mutual funds, the public has got disillusioned due to very bad returns in these funds. Unit Trust of India (UTI) is the leader in this financial activity.

National Debt : The amounts borrowed at different times by the Government for the expenditure which cannot be met from ordinary revenues. The money so raised may be for productive purpose or other
nation-building activities or for unproductive purpose, such as war.

Open Credit : Credit given by a banker to a customer without guarantee or security.

Overhead Cost : The cost over and above the fixed costs such as machinery, plants and land.

Paper Gold : Also known as Special Drawing Rights (S.D.R.) allotted to members of the International Monetary Fund, in proportion to their quota in the fund, so that the expanding world trade can be financed changing hands only on ledger sheets, but the members of the Fund are obliged to accept it as payment.

Patents : A patent is an exclusive right granted under the Patents Act to the inventor for anew and useful technical invention. This is done with a view to encouraging new inventions.

Public Company : A limited company whose capital consists of shares publicly subscribed.

Public Sector : A term which is generally applied to State enterprises or undertakings, i.e., those concerns or industries which are nationalised and run by the State.

Rebate : It is the refundable part of payment made, or commission. say, towards insurance policy or the like.

Reflation :  A state of affairs when money market ist1ght;so more money is put into circulation by creating more jobs or by providing cheap credit.

Royalty : It is a lump sum payment for certain kind of ownership or privilege, e.g., royalty paid for extracting oil from oilfields or mining coal from a coal-mine, or a share of the sale price of book, paid by the publisher to the author.

Security : Any article pledged to cover a loan and the interest thereon, for the stipulated period.

SDR : It is a unit of an account (Special Drawing Rights)–adopted by the International Monetary Fund. Its value is determined by an average value of 14 basket countries. Currently, the value of SDR is equal to U.S.A. $1.17.

Sit-down Strike : A form of strike in which the workers put down tools, but refuse to leave the premises of the factory.

Soft Currency : It is the currency of the country in relation to which we have a favourable balance of payment.

State Trading: When the state undertakes the purchase and sale of certain commodities, so as to control market prices, and to assure a fair deal, both to the product and consumer. In India, State Trading Corporation was set up in 1956 to take over the sale and distribution of cement. The S. T .C. now helps the economy in a number of ways by increasing overseas trade.

Sterling : It is the paper currency of England, i.e., one pound currency.

Tariff : It is protection for indigenous industry , or measures undertaken by any country to protect its own industry against trade competition from outside.